Top Downloads section combines the most popular scholarly articles from IOARP conferences and journals published in IOARP Digital Library. Besides providing an insight into publications other researcher are interested in, Top Downloads are also a reflection of the recent trends and directions in a particular research domain.

 

If you are interested in Top Downloads of a particular conference or a journal, please visit the Top Downloads section in its respective website. If you want to access the list of our conferences and journals, please visit Browse Subjects menu option in IOARP website. If you are Still unsure, please write to us on info@ioarp.org.



Analysis of Critical Aspects of M-commerce and Mobile Payment Systems 

Munir Hussain

Abstract

The fast spreading of wireless technology services are more focusing on businesses area rather than targeting customers. Even now, this advancement in the mobile technology continues to bang the international business market intensely, modern mobile technologies and their applications are more focusing the mobile business area. Today, the world of electronic transactions is switching from E-commerce to M-commerce. In order to solve critical issues in M-commerce it becomes vital to understand different concepts and technologies associated with M-commerce. The first part of this paper gives overview of M-commerce in terms of their characteristics, applications, and issues pertaining to it, including many critical issue such battery power consumption in M-commerce transactions. Battery is one of the most important and scarce resources in mobile devices thus to extend the mobile devices battery lifetime, it becomes important to save the battery resource as much as possible. The second part of this paper focuses on exploring various aspects of enabling mobile payment systems, mobile payment modes and characteristics and the payments system requirements.

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Collecting Statistical Parameters on Mobile Phones for Detection of Security Attacks and Mobile Malware

M Adeel, L N Tokarchuk, M A Azam, S K A Khan

Abstract

Communication between mobiles using technologies like Bluetooth, MMS, SMS, Mobile and Home Broadband can increases their susceptibility to mobile security threats. In the past few years, mobile malware has emerged as one of the major threats for modern-day mobile devices. Since the first malware outbreak in 2004, hundreds of mobile viruses, worms, Trojans and spyware and over thousands of their variants have been discovered. With such a large number of ever-evolving malware, it is challenging to develop an electronic system capable of detecting such malware. In this work, the statistical data generated as a consequence of interactions on mobile devices and the mechanism of recording this data against statistical parameters on mobile devices is discussed. We also provide a detailed taxonomy of the low and high-order statistical parameters, and discuss how these parameters (besides utilisation in other scenarios) can be affectively utilised in the detection of a variety of security attacks and malware types.

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Technical Evaluation of the Functionality of Popular Mobile Payment Protocols 

Munir Hussain, Syed Usman Jamil

Abstract

Today, mobile commerce flexibility has totally changed businesses in the world due to easy mobile-based online bookings and payments. Its implementation is not limited to any single area but it can be utilized in all sorts of situations and organizations in various ways. It can be utilized in banking, electronic publication distribution, online sales, online payments for different utility bills and online booking of airlines etc. These kinds of online booking, buying and selling, and their payment services are available to anyone 24/7 in the world. When using these types of facilities, one needs to understand and study different types of characteristics of this new technology i.e., it is important to understand different modes of payments, various technologies using mobile payment system, and different M-commerce payment protocols. As we know that energy consumption is a critical issue in M-commerce, so it is important to reduce battery power consumption as much as possible. In this paper, we will explore some of the most popular mobile payment protocols step-by-step to fully understand their working environment.  

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ICN Framework and Its Challenges for IOT Applications

Syed Usman Jamil, Khalid Khan

Abstract

The early internet user needs were coped by current internet architecture that was based on host-centric communication model. Now a day, usage as well as requirements of internet is changed however mostly internet users are interested to access large amount of data/information regardless of physical location.  This paradigm changes in the internet usage model along with mobility support, better security and pressing needs of users has invited researchers to consider radical changes in the internet architecture. By following this direction, we have reviewed many on-going efforts of researchers in which the future internet can be developed on the foundation of Information- Centric Networking. 
To sync billions of objects over the internet is promised by the internet of things (IOT). To deploy numerous individual IOT architectures, in domains of diverse nature, the ongoing trend is to deploy a common IOT platform, so that objects may be accessible and synchronized with applications across domains and organizations. To achieve this goal, limited proposals are developed to model unified host centric IOT infrastructure operate at upper layer of current host centric internet. Therefore, fundamental mismatch is evident in between the today’s host centric nature of internet and IOT system having information centric nature. We propose to develop common set of services and protocols to resolve this mismatch, which form a platform for IOT, on the basis of ICN paradigm, which may be named as ICN-IOT platform.  ICN-IOT merger is the ICN salient feature and therefore enables seamless scalability, mobility support and efficient service and content delivery. 
The main aim of these investigations is to find out the core functionalities of ICN architectures, overview of IOT functionalities and architectural requirements, and the review of ICN over IOT implementations and their advantages and challenges to sketch out the key unresolved challenges in this field of networking research.   

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Evaluation of the MPeersim – A Simulation Environment for Mobile Networks

M Adeel, L N Tokarchuk, M A Azam, S K A Khan

Abstract

MPeersim is a simulation environment for mobile and mobile P2P networks. It simulates different types of mobile nodes and communication technologies such as Bluetooth, MMS, and SMS. With a primary emphasis of evaluation of MPeersim in terms of simulation statistics, this paper will elaborate on various MPeersim functionalities in context of availability of generic, node, and network-specific simulation parameters, node and network-specific statistics available for various types of analyses, and on the capabilities of MPeersim in terms of presenting empirical data in different formats including graphs and visualisations for monitoring purposes. Providing a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between parameters and statistics will assist researchers in planning for developing simulation environments.

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The Taxonomy of Behavioural Parameters on Mobile Devices

M Adeel, L N Tokarchuk, M A Azam, S K A Khan4

Abstract

Mobile malware has emerged as one of the major threats for modern day mobile networks. Since the first inception a decade ago, hundreds of types of mobile malware and their variants have been discovered. Interactions between mobile using technologies like Bluetooth, MMS, SMS, and mobile and home broadband, leave significant usage footprints on mobile devices. If acquired and processed, these footprints can be utilised for a variety of purposes including the detection of mobile malware. This work is aimed at introducing various behaviour parameters against which the footprints can be recorded, and the processing of these parameters to produce high-order parameters that can prove very effective in different types of device and network-specific analysis including detection of malware. It is important to state that this work is limited to presenting a comprehensive taxonomy of behaviour parameters only, and a discussion on the mechanism of utilising the behaviour parameters in analysis such as detection of malware is beyond the scope of this work.

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A Hybrid Model for Usability of Mobile Applications

Rabia Afzal Minhas, Khola Rafique, Ali Javed, Muhammad Awais Azam

Abstract

The success of mobile applications depends upon its usability. Of all the non-functional requirements, usability dimension is the foremost requirement for mobile applications. Usability of mobile applications should be high so that users can interact with them easily. There have been many models proposed that help developers for making mobile applications more usable. But they did not address all of the issues. In our paper, we propose a framework which is hybrid of multiple models like ISO, Moe, Voelle, Nielsen Zhang and Pacmad. In this paper, we also introduce a novel feature “Waste-app” for efficient utilization of memory. It automatically cleans up cache and the apps which are in use for a long time. Proposed methodology shows that inclusion of this new feature and the new hybrid model gives better results in usability aspects.

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5G Technology: An Overview of Applications, Prospects, Challenges and Beyond

Maryam Fizza, Munam Ali Shah

Abstract

This paper provides a comprehensive overview of an emerging mobile wireless communication technology, i.e., 5G. We provide a concise view of the advancements which are currently being investigated to deploy 5G wireless technology in an effective and beneficial way. We aim to provide an easy and state of the art view of architectures, applications and challenges of the 5G technology. We group existing approaches and provide a critical overview of the underlying details adapted by the 5G technology.

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Smart Cities: Challenges and Beyond

Muhammad Hassan Raza, Munam Ali Shah, Muhammad Kamran Abbasi

Abstract

A smart city is an interconnection of objects in which each object plays a role of a source node. The data and information is collected from the source node for further computation and communication. A city can only be called a smart city if certain attributes are available such as clean water, good transport, energy efficiency, well-structured infrastructure, Internet of Things (IoT), mobile health (m-health), and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the things that form a smart city. We focus on applications and technologies and identify different challenges in a smart city. Furthermore, the critical evaluation of different standards, architectures and frameworks form part of the paper. 

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Lightweight Secure and Scalable Key Sharing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Munir Hussain, Khalid Khan

Abstract

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) technology is still immature and thus faces a variety of problems due to limited memory, CPU and battery power resources. WSNs are prone to active and passive attacks. While the former is capable of affecting minimal resources, the latter type of attack is difficult to launch but very powerful in terms of affecting critical resources. Most shared key security protocols used in WSNs are not scalable as they depend upon third party or KDC. Although in some situations this concept works well, besides reducing scalability, finding a trustworthy third party is also very difficult in KDC concept of key sharing. This paper gives a brief overview of WSNs, posed security threats to these networks and relevant security issues. This paper also brings in a novel key sharing model for traversing secret key in WSNs that does not depend on third party concept and hence it is a more scalable and secure.        

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Ad-hoc and Opportunistic Routing in Dynamic Scatternet Environment

S K A Khan, M Adeel, M A Azam

Abstract

In reality, mobile ad-hoc networks are highly unpredictable because any node can join or leave the network at any time, thus making reliable and effective communication a problem. This issue is addressed by introducing new breed of ad-hoc networking, known as opportunistic networks. Opportunistic networking is a concept that has evolved from mobile ad-hoc networking. In opportunistic networks nodes have no prior knowledge of routes to intended destinations. Any node in the network can be used as potential forwarder with the exception of taking information one step closer to intended destination. The forwarding decision is based on the information gathered from the source node or encountering node. The opportunistic forwarding can only be achieved if message forwarding is carried out in store and forward fashion. Although, opportunistic networks are more flexible than traditional MANETs, however, due to little insight of network, it poses distinct challenges such as intermittent connectivity, variable delays, short connection duration and dynamic topology. Addressing these challenges in opportunistic network is the basis for developing new and efficient protocols for information sharing. This paper presents a conceptual study for opportunistic networks to improve the overall message delivery at destinations while keeping the communication cost very low. Some assumptions are considered to improved directivity of message flow towards intended destinations. These assumptions exploit human social relationships analogies such as popularity and use of hybrid communication by applying opportunistic concepts on top of traditional ad-hoc routing such as AODV to gain maximum message directivity. The experiment results have shown that by combining traditional ad-hoc routing with opportunistic forwarding has not only improved directivity but as a result have achieved a great improvement in message delivery to intended destinations.

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Analysis of Embedded Web Resources in Web of Things

Muhammad Nazim, Munam Ali Shah, Muhammad Kamran Abbasi

Abstract

It is estimated that 42 million devices are currently connected to the Internet. These devices are accessible to a web interface through which a user can easily connect and utilize these devices by a simple Internet web browser forming a Web of Things (WoT). The connectivity of millions of devices through WoT has eliminated the need of a proprietary or control software. In this paper, we investigate these web services and analyze web embedded devices and related services in WoT. We aim to provide an easy and concise view of the underlying WoT model adapted by each approach.

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Relationship between Principal’s Instructional Supervision and Teacher’s Performance at Secondary Level in Peshawar

Safi Ullah, Um-e-Kulsoom, Mamriz Khan

Abstract

It is an established fact that the teachers are the catalysts for improving the quality of the teaching-learning process. This research is aimed at understanding the perception of teachers on the contribution of principal’s instructional supervision towards the performance of teachers. The principal is supposed to procure teaching materials to the schools for teachers to work with in order to improve classroom instruction. Principals may always be ready to assist the teachers and interact with them in a cordial manner. This study is aimed to explore the “Relationship between Principal’s Instructional Supervision and its Influence on Teacher's Performance at Secondary School Level in Peshawar”. For this purpose data was collected from 25 girls’ high & higher secondary schools. Eight teachers from each school were randomly selected, thus 200 teachers constituted the sample for the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondent teachers. The reliability test of the test items was carried out. The questionnaire was administered among 20 teachers other than the sample. Cronbach’s Alpha was carried out that has yielded results within the acceptable range. Data analysis was carried out by using statistical tools such as Descriptive Statistics, One-Sample t-test, Pearson Correlation-test, and Regression Analysis. The management may provide latest instructional technology to the educational institution for effective teaching-learning process. Finally, recommendations were put forward that could facilitate other researchers to carry out their research on the use of instructional technology at secondary school level.

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Strategies to Teach Child with Dyslexia in Classroom

Jin Mao, Colin Turcotte, Arjun Brar

Abstract

In this paper we aim at discussing various strategies adopted by teachers in order to help child with dyslexia cope up with class. The time spent in attaining the education plays a significant part of child’s development. For a teacher, aiding a dyslexic child is a wonderful as well as challenging task. Dyslexic students have learning differences due to which they can’t hold information for long and may not be able to grasp the information at all. It is important to understand that dyslexic learner neither lacks in intelligence nor willfulness, only constant support provided by mentors can help them in learning. However, with the guidance of professional tutors, well equipped and tested strategies- students are able to learn and achieve a lot.

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On the Importance of Communicating Behaviour Expectations in the First Session of a Class

Muhammad Adeel

Abstract

Classroom management has a critical impact on effective teaching and learning. Classroom disruptions are the pattern of repeated behaviour that significantly interrupts the teaching and learning process. It, therefore, becomes vital to handle these disruptions and the ability of a teacher to handle classroom discipline is given key priority in observation of teaching and learning conducted by the regulators. In this paper, we will focus on evaluating the importance of communicating behaviour expectations to the students in the very first session and its impact on effective teaching and learning. The analysis is based on the review of the literature, interviews, and a survey questionnaire completed by the teachers.

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Lateness and Absenteeism in Observed Classes: A Reflection on Practice

Asghar Hussain, Muhammad Adeel

Abstract

This paper focuses on the issues of creativity in teaching, motivation, and the ways in which various strategies can be implemented to promote inclusive teaching practice. Furthermore, through the use of these strategies, and, a selection of relevant learning theories, we will attempt to come to logical and reasoned conclusions on how best to tackle the critical incidents presented in this case study.

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Strategies of Teachers for Dealing with Student Misbehavior in Classroom

Sana Rahat, Amjad Reba

Abstract

This research aims to analyze different strategies of teachers for dealing with the misbehavior of students in a classroom. The objectives of the study were to determine the most common disruptive misbehavior of students and to explore different strategies used by teachers for dealing with problematic students. The nature of the study is quantitative. Four schools were conveniently selected from Cantt, Saddar Peshawar area. The respondents will be 9th and 10th-class teachers. For data collection, a self-structured close-ended questionnaire was prepared based on a five-point Likert scale. The researcher visited the schools personally and collected the data. The researcher analyzed the data by putting the data into SPSS version 21 and organized in the form of frequencies and percentages. The researcher used chi-square for the testing of hypotheses. 
The study concluded that student misbehaviors affect the smoothness and effectiveness of teaching in the classroom and different strategies adopted by teachers for controlling the disruptive behavior of students in the classroom plays important role in improving student behavior and motivating them toward learning. Recommended measures for dealing with student misbehavior include arranging sessions and seminars for students to understand the roots of the problem. Interacting with the parents to understand if the student might be dealing with a stressful situation at home.  

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Privacy-Preserving in Collaborative Working Environments

Wajeeha Naeem, Munam Ali Shah, Ahmad Kamran Malik

Abstract

A Collaborative Working Environment (CWE) requires information sharing but at the same time users’ privacy is another important requisite. In order to perform collaborative tasks efficiently, a user requires sharing of some of his information with other collaborating users. To manage the sharing and privacy issues effectively, we need to extend NIST standard Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) model. This will help users in order to allow them to specify their own rules that can be dynamically adapted at run time. There are some other models which are introduced to enhance collaborative sharing and improving privacy of users’ information such as Team-based Access Control (TMAC) Model and Extended RBAC Model which is an enhancement of core RBAC model. In this paper, these aforementioned models, which are related to sharing and privacy preservation, are discussed and after their implementation, they are compared and evaluated using privacy, sharing and rule based metrics.

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Development of Postpaid and Prepaid Billing System for ISPs

Azhar-ud-din, Ali Javed, Ayesha Hanif, M. Awais Azam, Tasawer Hussain

Abstract

ISPs generally provide two types of connections to their customers, varying primarily in payment options: postpaid and prepaid connections. In recent years, with the rapid development of broadband industry in third-world countries like Pakistan, it has become possible to meet the ever growing demands of internet users. Prepaid connections offered by ISPs continue to satisfy customer demands as the packages are skillfully tailored to meet growing demands of rapid connectivity without hassle of equipment installment time, serve customer’s mobility needs of accessing internet at more than one location, offer flexible rate packages for day and night timings and meet limited duration connectivity needs of tourists etc. Postpaid ISP billing solutions available in market are expensive and yet they fail to fulfill all of users’ requirements; specifically the mobility need. Now ISPs are keen in developing their own billing systems instead of buying non-customized applications from vendors. Most ISPs use AAA protocol for Authentication, Authorization and Accounting of their customers. For this feature, FreeRADIUS is the most widely deployed RADIUS server in the world, not only because it is an open source implementation of AAA but also because of its multitude of strengths. In this paper we explore these strengths and then propose a methodology of developing an ISP’s own pre-paid billing system using freeRADIUS. 

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Impact of Corporal Punishment on the Academic Achievement of Students

Zubaida, Amjad Reba

Abstract

Corporal punishment is a physical punishment. It is a punishment in which physical force is intended to the cause some degree of pain or discomfort. It includes hitting the children with hand or with a cane, strip or with any other object, kicking, shaking, or throwing children, scratching, pinching, pulling their ears and their hairs etc. Thus it is the harmful form of punishment which discourages the children. The study was conducted in District Chitral. Data was collected from 100 respondents of primary school students using random sampling technique through proportional allocation method using interview schedule. The data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. It is an essential strategy for all form of violence in societies. As special strategy for ending of corporal punishment to make more visible through research interviewing children and teachers.it is a universal issue, so in most countries worldwide the initiative builds a global map of the prevalence and legality of corporal punishment. Also in the right of children article 19 it is stated that to protect children from all form of physical and other punishment.  The main purpose of the study is to know whether corporal punishment is given in school. The major objective is to know whether teachers know the philosophy of punishment and punishes the student accordingly. While discussions have been made on the basis of findings and results. For the said purpose questionnaire survey method was adopted and it was find out that majority of students and teachers are against the corporal punishment. The study suggests the teacher’s education, training and awareness regarding hold back ways of corporal punishment and affect alternative ways to correct students’ misbehavior is irresistible.

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Ad hoc and Opportunistic Routing in Static Scatternet Environment

Sardar Kashif Ashraf Khan, Jonathan Loo, Muhammad Adeel, Muhammad Awais Azam

Abstract

Peer-to-peer connectivity between mobile phones using technologies such as Bluetooth has given a new dimension to the mobile communication. Peers through the help of various underlying protocols can form piconets and scatternets to transparently communicate the content across the network. There however are issues like reliability in communication, delay and the cost of communication that need to be considered before resorting to this form of communication. This paper presents a study where opportunistic concept such as Bubble Rap is tested in Bluetooth ad hoc networking environment. The notion behind this research is to study the properties of these two networking environments, since opportunistic networks are derived from ad hoc networks. Thus, study of these two different environments yet related to each other may help us find new ways of message forwarding in Bluetooth communication environment. This paper is aimed at investigating the behaviour of nodes present in Bluetooth static scatternet environment by 1) studying message transfer from a source to destination using traditional ad hoc communication protocols such as AODV and 2) message transfer using opportunistic algorithms such as Bubble Rap on top of traditional ad hoc communication. This paper also proposes a concept of ranking to transfer messages to the node that has higher social centrality ranking compared to the current node. Nodes with varying social ranking are allowed to join piconets and forward messages based on Bubble Rap concept in scatternet environment. In BR algorithm, nodes forward messages to only those encountering nodes which are more popular than the current node.

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On Propagation of Generic and Real-World Mobile Malware

Muhammad Adeel, Laurissa N Tokarchuk, S K A Khan, Muhammad Awais Azam

Abstract

Mobile malware has surfaced as a key challenge in recent years. With four hundred distinct types of mobile malware and approximately twelve hundred of their variants discovered to-date, there is a growing need of propagation analysis of mobile malware families to preempt the future malware threats and strategies. This paper provides an analysis of generic and real-world mobile malware to not only investigate their propagation capabilities but to also explore their implications on network and mobile resources.

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On the Significance of Communicating Behavior Expectations to the Students During Early Stages of an Academic Course

Muhammad Adeel, Saif Al Sultan

Abstract

Classroom management has a critical impact on effective teaching and learning. Classroom disruptions are the pattern of repeated behavior that significantly interrupts the teaching and learning process. It, therefore, becomes vital to handle these disruptions and the ability of a teacher to handle classroom discipline is given key priority in observation of teaching and learning conducted by the regulators. In this paper, we will focus on evaluating the significance of communicating behavior expectations to the students earlier on in the course, or ideally in the very first session, and its impact on effective teaching and learning. The analysis is based on the review of literature, interviews, and on the results of a survey completed by the teachers of a UK-based FE institution.

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Impact of Heavy School Bags on Student’s Physical Health and Learning Outcomes in Primary Schools of District Peshawar, KP

Sara Amin

Abstract

Kids are almost left with no options than to carry heavy school bags to school these days for a number of reasons. It has been observed by pediatricians that such a thing automatically leads to strained backs and necks in growing children, and also impacts the learning outcomes of the students. It is not any more uncommon to find students, especially in middle schools carrying huge bags weighing up to 30 pounds on their backs on a regular basis. Each year millions of students carry heavy bags with their shoulders drawn down with the weight. It is not surprising then that children complain of back pain, neck sprains etc.
Previously there are different studies in some developed countries regarding the impacts of Heavy Bags on Child`s health and learning outcome. In Pakistan, there is very little consideration awarded to analysis of student`s physical health and learning outcomes in context of the heavy bags they carry. Hence the role of Heavy bags presents an important area for analysis of the impacts of heavy bags in primary students in Pakistan. 
The study used a self-administered questionnaire among teachers of sampled students from Public Schools in Peshawar KPK. The data collected was analyzed using statistical tools. The results suggested that that the respondents agreed that students in their class have heavy bags, their students complain of back pain due to heavy bags and often suffer muscle pain. Students have short attention span, often have damaged spinal cord, suffer with back pain and hence leads to absence of students from school.  The results also signify that heavy bags results in low concentration, fatigue, learning and effect activities of the students.  

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Social Aspectsof 3G/4G Cellular Network Deployment in Pakistan

Sardar Aadilur Rehman, Munam Ali Shah, Sijing Zhang

Abstract

The smartphone looks the most appropriate communications technology in today's global world. Through this, people can connect to other people for different purposes, e.g., business, commerce, social networking and education etc. The success story of 2nd Generation of wireless mobile communication has been tremendous in Pakistan. The recently launched 3G and 4G cellular technologies in the country offer higher data rates and more connectivity options. In this paper, our contribution is two-fold. Firstly, we investigate the social impacts of 3G/4G cellular networks in Pakistan. Secondly, we conduct a survey about the appropriateness of the technology in the country from social aspects. The survey reveals some interesting results which could be used by service providers and policy makers to make the 3G/4G experience more beneficial. 

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