Top Downloads section combines the most popular scholarly articles from IOARP conferences and journals published in IOARP Digital Library. Besides providing an insight into publications other researcher are interested in, Top Downloads are also a reflection of the recent trends and directions in a particular research domain.

 

If you are interested in Top Downloads of a particular conference or a journal, please visit the Top Downloads section in its respective website. If you want to access the list of our conferences and journals, please visit Browse Subjects menu option in IOARP website. If you are Still unsure, please write to us on info@ioarp.org.



5G Technology: An Overview of Applications, Prospects, Challenges and Beyond

Maryam Fizza, Munam Ali Shah

Abstract

This paper provides a comprehensive overview of an emerging mobile wireless communication technology, i.e., 5G. We provide a concise view of the advancements which are currently being investigated to deploy 5G wireless technology in an effective and beneficial way. We aim to provide an easy and state of the art view of architectures, applications and challenges of the 5G technology. We group existing approaches and provide a critical overview of the underlying details adapted by the 5G technology.

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Smart Cities: Challenges and Beyond

Muhammad Hassan Raza, Munam Ali Shah, Muhammad Kamran Abbasi

Abstract

A smart city is an interconnection of objects in which each object plays a role of a source node. The data and information is collected from the source node for further computation and communication. A city can only be called a smart city if certain attributes are available such as clean water, good transport, energy efficiency, well-structured infrastructure, Internet of Things (IoT), mobile health (m-health), and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the things that form a smart city. We focus on applications and technologies and identify different challenges in a smart city. Furthermore, the critical evaluation of different standards, architectures and frameworks form part of the paper. 

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Collecting Statistical Parameters on Mobile Phones for Detection of Security Attacks and Mobile Malware

M Adeel, L N Tokarchuk, M A Azam, S K A Khan

Abstract

Communication between mobiles using technologies like Bluetooth, MMS, SMS, Mobile and Home Broadband can increases their susceptibility to mobile security threats. In the past few years, mobile malware has emerged as one of the major threats for modern-day mobile devices. Since the first malware outbreak in 2004, hundreds of mobile viruses, worms, Trojans and spyware and over thousands of their variants have been discovered. With such a large number of ever-evolving malware, it is challenging to develop an electronic system capable of detecting such malware. In this work, the statistical data generated as a consequence of interactions on mobile devices and the mechanism of recording this data against statistical parameters on mobile devices is discussed. We also provide a detailed taxonomy of the low and high-order statistical parameters, and discuss how these parameters (besides utilisation in other scenarios) can be affectively utilised in the detection of a variety of security attacks and malware types.

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Technical Evaluation of the Functionality of Popular Mobile Payment Protocols 

Munir Hussain, Syed Usman Jamil

Abstract

Today, mobile commerce flexibility has totally changed businesses in the world due to easy mobile-based online bookings and payments. Its implementation is not limited to any single area but it can be utilized in all sorts of situations and organizations in various ways. It can be utilized in banking, electronic publication distribution, online sales, online payments for different utility bills and online booking of airlines etc. These kinds of online booking, buying and selling, and their payment services are available to anyone 24/7 in the world. When using these types of facilities, one needs to understand and study different types of characteristics of this new technology i.e., it is important to understand different modes of payments, various technologies using mobile payment system, and different M-commerce payment protocols. As we know that energy consumption is a critical issue in M-commerce, so it is important to reduce battery power consumption as much as possible. In this paper, we will explore some of the most popular mobile payment protocols step-by-step to fully understand their working environment.  

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Study of Network Design Considerations for Small Businesses

Michael James Wood

Abstract

This paper investigates the logical and physical network design considerations for a small business.  Moreover, the paper investigates how a business facing data consistency issues may address the issue by implementing a network design solution and how networks can be monitored and protected from security threats. Part one of this paper investigates the networking solution and networking topologies. Part two discusses networking infrastructure such as the purchasing of necessary networking devices to centralize the businesses data communications and background and foreground services. Part three of this paper discusses various aspects of network and data communication monitoring using a networking tool provided by SolarWinds. The last section, part four investigates a security proposal for the businesses network and discusses data recovery, malware and authentication.

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Promoting School's Efficiency Through Academic and Non-Academic Outputs

Safi Ullah, Muhammad Yunas, Muhammad Iqbal, Hina Gul

Abstract

School’s outputs are graduates of the school who completed a given cycle of education in stipulated time. They have the requisite knowledge and skills induced by school. It may be in the form of different capacities created in students by schools such as competence in utilizing language, math, social and natural science and citizenship. Poor performance of output indicators may reflect various problems in programme design and implementation or adverse changes in external factors. Output indicators can be categorized into academic/cognitive and non-academic/non-cognitive. Academic/ cognitive outputs include learning skills, writing skills, knowledge of arithmetic, special knowledge of skills and specialization. In order to measure the cognitive outputs, the objectives of any particular age-group can be set, common curriculum can be devised and standardized tests can be formulated. Most parents expect that school will induce basic moral and ethical values in their wards as well as achievement in terminal examination. The school will also prepare students for their place in the wider society, not only in terms of cognitive skills but in social skills and interpersonal relationships, as well. Output indicators includes number of graduates at a particular level and their test scores; the information about dropout rate; completion rate, survival rate, examination pass rate, enhancing enrolment and minimizing dropout rate, increasing graduation rate are related to the efficiency of schools.

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Analysis of Efficient Market Hypothesis and Behavioral Finance

Emine Beyza Arikan, Bernd Sanger, Mehul Mehta

Abstract

The efficient market hypothesis suggests that at any given time in a capital market, the prices of stock reflect all available information. Hypothesis implies that it is impossible to beat the market because the market price always incorporates all the relevant information that may influence the price of a stock. Some researchers, based on the historic evidence, contradict with this hypothesis and challenge the presence of a perfect rationale behind the hypothesis. Behavioural finance on the other hand combines behavioural and cognitive psychological theory with economics and finance to provide explanations behind the irrational financial decisions investors make. Using these theories, behavioural finance explains stock market anomalies such as severe rises or falls in stock price. Behavioural finance assumes that both information structure and the characteristics of market investors influence investment decision of the individuals. This paper provides a thorough analysis of efficient market hypothesis and behavioural finance by taking into account the literature and market statistics.

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Development of a Management Information System for UK Cash & Carry Business

Michael James Wood

Abstract

This paper discusses the management and development of information systems in a small to medium sized cash and carry organization based in the United Kingdom. The paper discusses development for IT requirements, maintenance and the Input/outputs of operations for employees working in data processing or an IT department. Social and ethical issues are also discussed as well as how data base management systems can be useful to produce reports for middle to higher management.

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Consumer Marketing Engagement and Segment Multimedia Strategy for Launching a Beverage Product in Pakistan

Adnan Ashraf, Yousaf Raheel, Muhammad Adeel, Asghar Hussain

Abstract

Soft drinks market is the third largest revenue participant of Central Board of Revenue in terms of sales tax and excise duties. Pakistani beverage market has been growing since its inception. With several local and international companies interested in this lucrative business, this paper attempts to provide a much sought-after insight into various aspects of Pakistani consumer market by providing a consumer engagement and segment multimedia strategy for a future beverage product as a case study. The theories on consumer engagement and their application in perspective of Pakistani society, and a detailed analysis of considerable factors in consumer engagement in context of segment multimedia strategy are the highlights of this work. Although focused on Pakistani market, this case study is perfectly applicable in context of other Asian and African countries with similar socio-culture environment.

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Analysis of Embedded Web Resources in Web of Things

Muhammad Nazim, Munam Ali Shah, Muhammad Kamran Abbasi

Abstract

It is estimated that 42 million devices are currently connected to the Internet. These devices are accessible to a web interface through which a user can easily connect and utilize these devices by a simple Internet web browser forming a Web of Things (WoT). The connectivity of millions of devices through WoT has eliminated the need of a proprietary or control software. In this paper, we investigate these web services and analyze web embedded devices and related services in WoT. We aim to provide an easy and concise view of the underlying WoT model adapted by each approach.

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Evaluation of the MPeersim – A Simulation Environment for Mobile Networks

M Adeel, L N Tokarchuk, M A Azam, S K A Khan

Abstract

MPeersim is a simulation environment for mobile and mobile P2P networks. It simulates different types of mobile nodes and communication technologies such as Bluetooth, MMS, and SMS. With a primary emphasis of evaluation of MPeersim in terms of simulation statistics, this paper will elaborate on various MPeersim functionalities in context of availability of generic, node, and network-specific simulation parameters, node and network-specific statistics available for various types of analyses, and on the capabilities of MPeersim in terms of presenting empirical data in different formats including graphs and visualisations for monitoring purposes. Providing a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between parameters and statistics will assist researchers in planning for developing simulation environments.

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Problems Encountered By a Pre-School Teacher

Enzo Gomes Faria, Limoncho Tatoyoz, Muhammad Juman

Abstract

In this paper we aim at understanding the various problems encountered by a preschool teacher. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate root problems which are faced by teachers of all spectrums in kindergarten schools. We will also discuss different scenarios these super humans encounter in their day to day routine. It is often thought that teaching kids is fun, which is not always true. The toddlers have sudden mood swings and this can be very irritating for teachers when they have to handle a big class full kids who can’t even handle themselves and find every solution in crying. Patience and engaging activities planned by teachers is the only way which helps them in class control. The other problems faced by them are related to curriculum planning, hectic paperwork, handling administration, working in alliance with parents, low pays, and most of all handling toddler’s behavior.

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SKEP & SEEKDP: Towards Secure and Energy-Efficient Key Exchange and Distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks

Munir Hussain, Khalid Khan

Abstract

Security and Energy are important issues when wireless sensor network (WSN) is deployed in harsh environments. WSN security becomes real challenge for the researchers because these networks are vulnerable to security attacks due to the broadcast nature of transmission. Due to the limited memory, CPU, and battery power of sensor nodes, traditional asymmetric-key distribution protocols are expensive and rather infeasible. Thus only a very few conventional protocols can readily be used in sensor networks and key management schemes should be designed carefully to reduce computations power over the sensor node as well. In this paper we analyse existing Key Management Protocols like SPINS, SEKEN, SNAKE, and Security Architecture for Mobile WSNs and BROSK for their vulnerabilities against Denial of Service attacks. In WSNs, where the most protocols working on point-to-point handshaking procedures to negotiate link dependent keys, this influence the scalability of the network, we present a novel protocol SKEP to construct link dependent keys by unicasting. We also propose SEEKDP a security protocol that prevents certain attacks, distribute keys, exchange information in an efficient manner and provide security by consuming less energy of regular sensor node.

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Efficient Data Aggregation Scheme in Secure Tree based Wireless Sensor Networks (EDAS)

Khalid Khan

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have emerged as an important area of research from the last two decades. In WSNs, sensors have limited memory, computational capability and battery power. One of the solutions to these issues is to reduce the data transmission and today, various data aggregation protocols have been proposed to reduce network traffic. But they created security issues like authentication, data integrity and freshness. Hop-by-hop secure data aggregation protocols were proposed to provide security along with data aggregation function. But, data on the aggregators still need to be secured because aggregators are exposed to node compromises. End-to-end secure data aggregation protocols are proposed. They provide end-to-end security and privacy of data. One of these protocols is Secure End-to-End Data Aggregation (SEEDA), which ensured end-to-end privacy of data. However, the protocol has higher communication cost and computational overheads because it sends extra bits/data regarding non-responding nodes and performs unnecessary computations for non-responding nodes. I proposed new protocol, EDAS which reduces 12% to 25% communication and computational overheads as compared to SEEDA and it is also efficient in energy consumption.

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Classroom Disruptions: Causes, Effects, and Strategies for Tackling Disruptive Behaviour

Aaqil Al Rashid, Safwa Al Jafri, Iyaad Al Molla

Abstract

Classroom settings and disruptive behaviour are critical topics in society today because of the growing concerns of bullying related suicides, enhancement of electronic and social media use, and mental health and cultural issues. While disruptive behaviour may seem insignificant for some, many times there are serious underlying issues that need to be addressed. In this paper we will discuss different types of disruptive behaviours in the classroom setting and explore key reasons behind such behaviours.

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Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN): Security and Authentication Methods

Munir Hussain

Abstract

The demand for WBAN has increased for last few years because it is useful network to monitor and improve various health conditions of human being. Information’s exchanges among different entities are very sensitive, so it is vital to keep this information’s secure from unauthorized access in order to avoid unpleasant incidents. Security and privacy are the most critical issues. Security is the important issue for any network and especially in WBANs its proper management is very crucial otherwise biomedical data collected by sensor nodes should be mixed with other user’s data. Also patients do not want their personal data to be misused and WBAN should provide the privacy to prevent eavesdropping. Mutual authentication is also a key challenge in WBAN and patients’ data originality and integrity are important for their treatment diagnosis etc. Development of the new mutual authentication schemes in healthcare applications without considering security makes patient privacy vulnerable. In this paper, we discuss communication technologies, possible attacks and recently most used popular authentication methods in WBANs.

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A Hybrid Model for Usability of Mobile Applications

Rabia Afzal Minhas, Khola Rafique, Ali Javed, Muhammad Awais Azam

Abstract

The success of mobile applications depends upon its usability. Of all the non-functional requirements, usability dimension is the foremost requirement for mobile applications. Usability of mobile applications should be high so that users can interact with them easily. There have been many models proposed that help developers for making mobile applications more usable. But they did not address all of the issues. In our paper, we propose a framework which is hybrid of multiple models like ISO, Moe, Voelle, Nielsen Zhang and Pacmad. In this paper, we also introduce a novel feature “Waste-app” for efficient utilization of memory. It automatically cleans up cache and the apps which are in use for a long time. Proposed methodology shows that inclusion of this new feature and the new hybrid model gives better results in usability aspects.

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Dynamics of Marketed Surplus of Major Vegetables in Multan, Pakistan

Manan Aslam, Muhammad Ahsin Ayub, Mudassar Yasin, Qumer Iqbal, Bilal Atta

Abstract

Vegetable production is concentrated in peri-urban areas as related to the rural production areas because of increasing people preferences towards the ingestion of fresh vegetables and nutritious diet. Vegetables are good source of proteins, minerals and vitamins, which are essential for human health. Agricultural commercialization provides different opportunities for better income and sustainable livelihood for farmers having small land holdings. Nearly 63 different kinds of vegetables are grown in all provinces of Pakistan, but potatoes, cauliflower, brinjal, onions and tomatoes are frequently grown vegetables. These are vended by traditional marketing e.g. through farmer, wholesaler, pharia and retailer to consumers. In this perspective, this study was designed to explore marketing systems of three selected kharif vegetables including, ladyfinger, bitter gourd and brinjal. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 45 farmers. Questionnaires were developed and pretested to collect data from selected respondents. A regression model was estimated to analyze effect of major factors, affecting marketed surplus of vegetables. The results showed that peri- urban farmers sold high proportions of their vegetables. Better prices and market information are the main incentives for increased sales of the vegetables.

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Strategic Planning: Analysis of the Past, Present, and Future Strategies of the Vodafone

Bernd Sanger, Emine Beyza Arikan, Asma Hosseini

Abstract

This paper provides an evaluation of the past, present, and future strategic plans of Vodafone. To design any strategy for future, it is imperative to analyse the important parts of strategic plans of the company in the past. Thus in this work, we provides a detailed analysis of Vodafone’s strategic plan from the past decade. Similarly, to identify the aspects of strategic importance for Vodafone in the present times, this work provides an overview of the key components of the current strategic plan of Vodafone. Finally, based on the study of the past and present strategies, and critical variables affecting telecom industry in general and Vodafone in particular, this work proposes some critical components of any future strategic plan for Vodafone. Based on the analysis as part of this work, we also propose various improvements to the value chain of Vodafone.

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Integrated Marketing Communication Strategy: Launching a Beverage Product in South Asian Markets

Yousaf Raheel

Abstract

This paper provides an integrated marketing communication strategy for launching a beverage product in Pakistan. Context analyses conducted as part of this study include internal and external analysis, business analysis, stakeholder analysis, and customer analysis. In context of marketing communication strategy, this research includes SMART marketing communication objectives, a detailed discussion on considerations in developing marketing communication strategy, a comprehensive strategy to achieve marketing communication objectives, and discussion on the mechanism of controlling and evaluation of marketing communications plan. It is important to highlight that although in this work, a focus has been placed on the consumer market of Pakistan, due to socio-cultural and demographic similarities between the countries in South Asia, this strategy will prove equally effective in India, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Nepal and Bhutan.

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Ad-hoc and Opportunistic Routing in Dynamic Scatternet Environment 

S K A Khan, M Adeel, M A Azam

Abstract

In reality, mobile ad-hoc networks are highly unpredictable because any node can join or leave the network at any time, thus making reliable and effective communication a problem. This issue is addressed by introducing new breed of ad-hoc networking, known as opportunistic networks. Opportunistic networking is a concept that has evolved from mobile ad-hoc networking. In opportunistic networks nodes have no prior knowledge of routes to intended destinations. Any node in the network can be used as potential forwarder with the exception of taking information one step closer to intended destination. The forwarding decision is based on the information gathered from the source node or encountering node. The opportunistic forwarding can only be achieved if message forwarding is carried out in store and forward fashion. Although, opportunistic networks are more flexible than traditional MANETs, however, due to little insight of network, it poses distinct challenges such as intermittent connectivity, variable delays, short connection duration and dynamic topology. Addressing these challenges in opportunistic network is the basis for developing new and efficient protocols for information sharing. This paper presents a conceptual study for opportunistic networks to improve the overall message delivery at destinations while keeping the communication cost very low. Some assumptions are considered to improved directivity of message flow towards intended destinations. These assumptions exploit human social relationships analogies such as popularity and use of hybrid communication by applying opportunistic concepts on top of traditional ad-hoc routing such as AODV to gain maximum message directivity. The experiment results have shown that by combining traditional ad-hoc routing with opportunistic forwarding has not only improved directivity but as a result have achieved a great improvement in message delivery to intended destinations.

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Understanding Employee Retention: Processes, Best Practices, Myths, and Important Factors

Assem Bin Bandar, Ahmed Alhoqail, Jiangling Liu

Abstract

The study describes the relationship between the Human Resource Management practices and the employee retention. It has become essential to retain the best employees to the organisations performance. The research reviews relevant literature to identify HR practices that influence the employee retention and also the effect on the overall organisational performance by retaining the right and efficient employees. Therefore, it is important to have a productive and efficient workforce to collectively focus on the organisation’s success. In this paper we provide highlight the importance of employee retention in HRM, discuss the critical process and best practices in employee retention, briefly summarise the myths in the context, and provide a detailed discussion on the factors affecting employee retention.

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Efficient Market Hypothesis: An Evaluation of the Efficiency of Indian Capital Markets

Bernd Sanger, Emine Beyza Arikan, Mehul Mehta, Asma Hosseini

Abstract

Market efficiency refers to the accuracy and quickness with which prices reflect market related information. Decisions of investment by an investor in a market is influenced by many factors, one of the most important is the market efficiency. Research reveals that if a market is efficient, it is extremely difficult to make excessive returns. In an efficient market there exist next to none undervalued securities. With the first stock exchange started functioning in 1875 Indian stock markets have been lucrative for the traders from around the world. This paper attempts to analyse the efficiency of the Indian capital markets. Research from the literature and the interviews of the renowned investors have been used to reach a conclusion. Some tips in context of investment strategy have also been provided.

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Professionalism: Understanding its Meaning and Impact in Relation to Effective Teaching and Learning

Asghar Hussain

Abstract

This paper will focus on elucidating what it means to be a modern professional in the teaching sector. It will discuss the notion of professionalism in light of changes in education and educational reform. Furthermore, it will highlight the importance of reflective practice, and as a consequence, the teachers will develop a clear understanding of their position within the educational sector as professional practitioners.

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An Evaluation of the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Supply Chain of a UK Retailer

Braydon Guascoine, Surintan Binti, Zhang Yongtan

Abstract

With over 1100 stores nation-wide and revenue of more than £23 billion Sainsbury’s is one of the UK’s largest retail groups. This paper provides a much-needed insight into the supply chain of Sainsbury’s in context of fast-spoiling fresh fruit and vegetable product line. A detailed overview of literature has been conducted to highlight the best practices in supply chain management process which has helped identify important components of the SCM an organisation should focus on. With the help of this overview, questionnaires were prepared to conduct a survey from the customers and the staff of Sainsbury’s. As a result of this survey, critical problems in Sainsbury’s supply chain management process for fresh fruit and vegetables were identified  

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